The massive castles which spring to mind whenever the subject of siege warfare is discussed are those from the end of the medieval period. There are several reasons for this: the earlier fortifications were either destroyed or replaced by stone structures, and a good stone wall is much more memorable than the remnant earth mound of a motte-and-bailey structure. Castles started out as fortified residences for a local lord in feudal Europe, and were taken to new levels after the Norman invasion of England. Castle building probably reached its zenith during the reign of Edward I and his conquest of Wales.
A small fortified settlement on a strategic route or near a border in 13th century France.
An old pictish tower.
Fortified Welsh settlement.
Defensive island in early medieval Ireland or Scotland.
Fortified residence for a Welsh lord.
Early type of castle with a tower on a raised mound surrounded by a wooden stockade.
A strong wooden fence.
Fortified tower residences found along the England/Scotland border dating form the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Initiated during the reign of Edward I in response to continued raids by armies form Scotland (and England). Continued to be used throughout the era of the Border Reivers.
A stone replacement for the wooden walls of a bailey (of a motte-and-bailey structure) usually restricted by the size of the original mound.
A small castle formed from a single tower.
This list is limited to defensive structures and buildings, rather than those features related to everyday residence.
A single indentation of an battlemented parapet. Also known as an embrasure.
The walled enclosure or courtyard of a castle.
A fortified extension of a gateway to provide protection against attack.
An arched ceiling or roof made from stone (or brick) and designed to withstand the impact of artillery shot. Also known as a casement — especially if provided with an emplacement for cannon.
The perimeter stone wall of the castle. Replaced earlier wooden palisades.
Central stone keep of a medieval castle.
The opening behind a window or arrow loop. Also used as an alternative name for a crenel.
The sloping ground beyond the outermost works or the moat.
A watch tower attached to a castle.
A timber gallery supported on beams which project form the top of a wall. Holes in the structure’s floor allowed defenders to drop stones (and other stuff like boiling oil) on attackers at the base of the wall. Such a gallery may also be used to provide cover at the top of a fortified wall or around a window on the wall (for a toilet, etc.). Also known as a bretache or bretesche.